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INRA 24, chemin de Borde Rouge –Auzeville – CS52627 31326 Castanet Tolosan CEDEX - France
Since 1985 when I started my PhD in Mike Daniel’s group at the John Innes Institute (UK), I have been studying how plants and bacteria interact together. Firstly, I worked in plant pathology with two phytopathogenic bacteria, Xanthomonas campestris and Ralstonia solanacearum, and their host plants. I studied the molecular mechanisms both by which these bacteria infect and cause disease symptoms on plants, and those that enable plants to resist such infection. During my analysis of the hrp genes of R. solanacearum as a post-doc in Christian Boucher’s group at the LIPM, I contributed to the discovery that the type III secretion system is conserved with bacterial mammalian pathogens, and is involved in secreting elicitors for disease and the hypersensitive reaction in plants. I was recruited by the CNRS in 1998 in Jean Dénarié’s group at the LIPM. Since then I have been studying the molecular and genetic mechanisms of early symbiotic signalling between Medicago truncatula and the two endosymbiotic microorganisms of this plant, Sinorhizobium meliloti and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. I was involved in the identification of a Nod factor signalling pathway in M. truncatula, and the demonstration that this is common between the two symbioses. I am particularly interested in the roles of LysM receptor proteins in plant-microbe interactions.
Julie Cullimore, DR1 INRA
My research interests have always been related to plant nitrogen nutrition, starting with studying nitrogen assimilatory pathways in Chlamydomonas (PhD at the University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK), and then in bean (post-doc at Rothamsted Experimental Station, UK, followed by eight years as lecturer and group leader at Warwick University, UK). My interests in nitrogen assimilation continue through collaboration with Helena Carvalho (Porto, Portugal) on the enzyme, glutamine synthetase. The work on bean involved studies on the legume-Rhizobium symbiosis and following the discovery of Nod factors at the LIPM in Toulouse, I became interested in symbiotic signalling and how the symbiosis is established. I thus joined INRA at the LIPM in 1991 to study the perception of these molecules using M. truncatula as the model and working in close collaboration with Jean-Jacques Bono and Raoul Ranjeva. Since the discovery of putative Nod factor receptors, we are interested in how these proteins perceive and transduce the symbiotic signal leading to activation of nodulation and infection, through studying ligand/receptor complexes and interacting proteins, using structure-function approaches. This work now includes the perception of Myc-LCOs.
Jean-Jacques Bono, CR1 INRA
I got my PhD in 1983 at the University Paul Sabatier (Toulouse). During my thesis at the Centre of Plant Physiology, I was working on the use lignocellulosics as a source of renewable carbon after biotransformation with lignin-degrading white-rot fungi. This allowed me to integrate the Biochemistry Department of the Elf Aquitaine research centre (Lacq) for a two-year contract to study the catalytic mechanisms of lignin-peroxidase and Mn-peroxidase, and their possible use as bleaching biological agents for pulp and paper industries. Meanwhile, I accomplished my military duty as a scientist at the Laboratory of Plant Physiology of IRD (Abidjan, Ivory Coast) working on a physiological disease of Hevea Brasiliensis. After my experience in industry, I integrated the Agronomy Department of INRA (Bordeaux), in 1987, to study the turn-over of soil organic matter and its impact on soil fertility. After the discovery of Nod factors in 1990, I joined the LIPM to initiate and develop th biochemical approaches aiming at characterizing Nod factor Binding Sites as potential Nod factor receptors. This work was performed in close collaboration between the group of Julie and that of Raoul Ranjeva in the neighboring LRSV where I was a former member before leading my own group. In 2011, I joined the group of Clare and Julie to reinforce the biochemistry work on the perception/signalling of LCOs in M. truncatula including the Nod factor and the recently identified Myc factors.
Frédéric Debellé, CR1 INRA
My main focus of interest is the nitrogen-fixing symbiosis between rhizobia and legumes, with particular emphasis on host range control and development of the root nodule. Together with partners at LIPM, from 1985 to 2000, I worked on Sinorhizobium meliloti, the bacterial symbiont of Medicago sp. and characterized a number of genes (nod genes) with a crucial role in the control of nodulation and host specificity. I investigated the role of these genes in the biosynthesis of Nod factors, lipooligosaccharidic signals controlling root nodule organogenesis and infection. I then switched to work on M. truncatula in order to analyze in this model legume the signaling pathways leading to nodule organogenesis in response to Nod factors. I characterized a central component of this pathway, DMI3, also required for mycorrhization, thus showing the crucial role of calcium signaling in nodulation and mycorrhization. All along I was involved in the development of genetic and genomic tools for M. truncatula in particular the sequencing of its genome. I’m currently trying to characterize M. truncatula genes involved in host range control.
Christine Hervé, CR1 CNRS
I did my PhD at the LIPM in Pierre Yot’s lab (1989-1993), where I studied the resistance induced by the introduction of the coat protein of the cauliflower mosaïc virus into host plants. Then I moved to Bernard Lescure’s group at the LIPM on European contracts and I contributed to the analysis of the transcribed genome of Arabidospis thaliana. During these analyses I characterized the first member of the lectin kinase receptor family in Arabidopsis and I carried out structural and functional studies on this new family of receptors for 6 years. In 1997 I was recruited by the CNRS in Bernard Lescure’s group on this project. In 2001, I switched to the functional analysis of transcription factors containing TCP domains in Arabidopsis, a subject which made a link between my work and Dominique Tremousaygue’s subject who worked in the same team. This group stopped in 2007 and I joined Julie Cullimore’s group to study the early steps of the signalling/transduction pathway between Medicago truncatula and two endosymbiotic microorganisms. I am particularly involved in the identification and characterization of interacting partners of symbiotic receptors.
Sandra Bensmihen, CR1 CNRS
I did my PhD at the « Institut des Sciences du Végétal » (ISV) in Gif-sur-Yvette, working on transcription factors from the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) family and their implication in the maturation of Arabidopsis thaliana seeds, under the direction of François Parcy. Then I worked for a bit more than 2 years in Norwich, at the John Innes Centre, in the group of Enrico Coen on modelling approaches of Antirrhinum and Arabidopsis leaf development. I then moved to the symbiosis field with a second post-doc in Clare Gough’s group (LIPM, Toulouse), on genetic analysis of Nod Factor perception by the LysM-RLK gene NFP, in Medicago truncatula. Finally, I had the opportunity to “merge” developmental and symbiosis aspects, since I got a permanent CNRS position (in 2008) to work on the influence of symbiotic molecules (Nod and Myc factors) on lateral root development of Medicago truncatula.
Nicolas PAULY, Senior Lecturer at Université Côte d'Azur
Senior Lecturer in Plant Physiology at Université Côte d'Azur (formerly Université Nice Sophia Antipolis) since 2003 and member of the "Symbiosis and Redox State of the Cell" team at the Sophia Agrobiotech Institute (ISA). My work aims to define more precisely the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the legume nitrogen fixing symbiosis. My particular emphasis is on NADPH oxidases (Respiratory Burst Oxidative Homologs - RBOHs), which participate in the production of ROS and play an important role in plant-microbe interactions and developmental processes. This research is carried out on the model plant Medicago truncatula (related to alfalfa), using multidisciplinary approaches (functional genetics, transcriptomics, proteomics, cell biology, physiology, etc.).
Since 2015, I have been carrying out my research activities in the “Symbiotic signalling” team at the LIPME (thanks to INRA-SPE support). Here, I am more particularly interested in studying relationships that may exist between NADPH oxidases, ROS, LysM receptor-like kinases and lipochitooligossacharides. I am also developing new methods for ROS detection in M. truncatula.
The overall goal of this research is to better understand plant microbe interactions and to implement new plant protection strategies within the framework of a more sustainable agriculture.
Fabienne Maillet, IE1 INRA
Recruited in 1983 in this team, my career is linked to the story of the nitrogen fixing symbiosis and its various discoveries: the cloning and regulation of bacterial nod genes, the identification of Nod factors, the identification of the Nod signalling pathway in M. truncatula, the Research and Development work for the use of Nod factors in agriculture. Recently, I was largely involved in the project conducted by J. Dénarié, which led to the identification of fungal LCOs acting as symbiotic signals in the endomycorrhizal interaction. Now, I’m involved in the phenotypic characterization of the LysM-RLK family of genes in M. truncatula with the aim of finding the different Nod and Myc receptors.
William Buhian, PhD student
I have recently graduated with a Masters degree in Biology from the University of the Philippines, where my thesis was on antimicrobial activity against multidrug-resistant bacteria of plants used in traditional medicine. I was granted a scholarship by the French and Philippine governments to do my PhD studies in Toulouse. My current PhD project, supervised by Dr Sandra Bensmihen, is on the functional characterization of a gene predicted to be involved in auxin signalisation.
Bich Luu, PhD student
I obtained a Master’s degree in Plant Biotechnology from the University of Science and Technology of Hanoi (USTH) in 2017. In my Master’s thesis, I spent 6 months at the LIPM working with Dr Julie Cullimore and Dr Nicolas Pauly in the “Symbiotic Signalling” team. My project concerned the identification and characterization of protein partners of the symbiotic receptor called NFP. I was awarded a PhD grant by the French Embassy in Vietnam to do my PhD here from 2018 to 2021. The aim of my project is to study the mechanisms of lipochitooligosaccharidic signaling in root and nodule development in the model legume Medicago truncatula.