Ghostery is available here for free: https://www.ghostery.com/fr/products/
You can also visit the CNIL web site for instructions on how to configure your browser to manage cookie storage on your device.
In the case of third-party advertising cookies, you can also visit the following site: http://www.youronlinechoices.com/fr/controler-ses-cookies/, offered by digital advertising professionals within the European Digital Advertising Alliance (EDAA). From the site, you can deny or accept the cookies used by advertising professionals who are members.
It is also possible to block certain third-party cookies directly via publishers:
Means of blocking
Analytical and performance cookies
Realytics Google Analytics Spoteffects Optimizely
Targeted advertising cookies
The following types of cookies may be used on our websites:
Social media and advertising cookies
These cookies are needed to ensure the proper functioning of the site and cannot be disabled. They help ensure a secure connection and the basic availability of our website.
These cookies allow us to analyse site use in order to measure and optimise performance. They allow us to store your sign-in information and display the different components of our website in a more coherent way.
These cookies are used by advertising agencies such as Google and by social media sites such as LinkedIn and Facebook. Among other things, they allow pages to be shared on social media, the posting of comments, and the publication (on our site or elsewhere) of ads that reflect your centres of interest.
Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses CAS and PHP session cookies and the New Relic cookie for monitoring purposes (IP, response times).
These cookies are deleted at the end of the browsing session (when you log off or close your browser window)
Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses the XiTi cookie to measure traffic. Our service provider is AT Internet. This company stores data (IPs, date and time of access, length of the visit and pages viewed) for six months.
Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) does not use this type of cookie.
For more information about the cookies we use, contact INRA’s Data Protection Officer by email at firstname.lastname@example.org or by post at:
INRA 24, chemin de Borde Rouge –Auzeville – CS52627 31326 Castanet Tolosan CEDEX - France
Symbiotic signal perception and arbuscular mycorrhiza in non-legumes.
The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis. Most plants including cereals form an endosymbiosis with AM fungi belonging to the group of Glomeromycota. AM fungi are beneficial for plants because of their ability to colonize both soil and roots and collect nutrients from a much higher soil volume than plant roots. AM fungi penetrate root cortical cells and exchange nutrients through structures called arbuscules. AM fungi provide soil nutrients (phosphorus, nitrogen and other nutrients) to plants and benefit from fixed carbon (photosynthates) from the plants through carbohydrate and lipid tranfers. AM fungi can also protect plants from biotic and abiotic stress. This interaction is described as a mutualistic symbiosis, however antagonistic effects on plant host growth can sometimes be observed.
A tomato root colonized by a strain of the AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis. The fungus is stained by ink (blue). Arrows show arbuscules. Arrowheads show extraradical hyphae.
Our research: We are interested in understanding plant molecular mechanisms which influence 1/ host colonization by AM fungi and 2/ mycorrhizal growth response (which can positive or negative).
Plant models: In 2012, I initiated studies on model and crop plants including dicots: Nicotiana benthamiana and Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) and monocots: Brachypodium distachyon and Triticum aestivum (wheat).
A B. distachyon plant grown for 9 weeks in a growth chamber.
Note that Arabidopsis thaliana, a widely used plant model is one of the few plants unable to form the AM symbiosis.
Objective 1: To determine the role of signal molecules produced by AM fungi in the establishment of the symbiosis. Lipo-chitooligosaccharidic (LCO) and short chitooligosaccharidic (CO) produced by AM fungi are able to activate a host signalling pathway required for host colonization by AM fungi and thus LCOs and COs are likely involved in mechanisms of host colonization. Our strategy consists of the identification and characterization of plant LCO and CO receptors. Candidates belong to the family of Receptor-Like Kinases (RLKs) containing LysM domains. We are characterizing LCO or CO binding properties of LysM-RLKs using radiolabelled molecules or Microscale Thermophoresis. We are also determining the biological roles of these receptors by reverse genetic approaches. We also aim to purify LCO or CO binding proteins from membrane fractions and to identify them by mass spectrometry.
Objective 2: To identity the genetic determinants and the molecular mechanisms that control plant benefit from AM fungi. To address this objective, we are investigating the natural genetic variability of B. distachyon. This includes analysis of growth and transcriptional responses of plants to various AM fungal strains in various environments. The aim is to identify molecular mechanisms that are critical for mycorrhizal growth responses using quantitative genetic approaches. For this, we use the new Toulouse plant phenotyping platform to measure growth kinetics of various B. distachyon genotypes in the presence or the absence of AM fungi.
Objective 3: Characterize functional interactions between AM fungi and soil bacteria and measure effect of agricultural practices on AM fungal and associated bacterial communities. We have initiated a research program to explore the interactions between bacterial and AM fungal communities associated with wheat roots in fields, and their effects on plant benefit from AM fungi. To do this, we characterize the communities by metagenomic approaches and isolate bacterial and AM fungal strains associated with wheat roots. The growth of various wheat cultivars will be measured in the presence or the absence of combinations of isolated bacteria and AM fungi.
Benoit Lefebvre, researcher (DR2 INRA)
Yi Ding, PhD student (Chinese scholarship)
Margot Trinquier, PhD student (fellowship from Toulouse University - Région Occitanie), co-supervised by Christophe Roux (LRSV, Toulouse)
Luis Buendia, PhD student (2015-2018, co-supervision with S. Bensmihen)
Camille Ribeyre, assistant AI (2018-2019)
Project MYCOBLE (FSOV, 2020-2023), coordinator: B. Lefebvre
Project WHEATSYM (ANR, 2017-2021), coordinator: B. Lefebvre
Projet Stress'n'Sym (Institut Carnot Plant2Pro, 2017-2020), coordinator: B. Lefebvre
Project DIBAM (SPE INRA, 2018-2019), coordinator: B. Lefebvre
Projet RHIZOWHEAT (IDEX ATS, 2016-2017), coordinator: C. Masson (LIPM)
Projet SPE (INRA, 2014-2015), coordinator: J. Cullimore (LIPM)
Projet LCOinNONLEGUMES (ANR young scientist, 2011-2014), coordinator: B. Lefebvre
PICS (CNRS, 2011-2012), coordinator: B. Lefebvre
Recent Publications (2016-2020)
Lefebvre B. 2020. An opportunity to breed rice for improved benefits from the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis? New Phytol, 225:1404-1406
Girardin A, Wang T, Ding Y, Keller J, Buendia L, Gaston M, Ribeyre C, Gasciolli V, Auriac MC, Vernié T, Bendahmane A, Ried MK, Parniske M, Vandenbussche M, Schorderet M, Reinhardt D, Delaux PM, Bono JJ and Lefebvre B. 2019. LCO receptors involved in arbuscular mycorrhiza are functional for rhizobia perception in legumes. Current Biol, 29: 4249-4259
Buendia L, Ribeyre C, Bensmihen S, Lefebvre B. 2019. Brachypodium distachyon tar2lhypo mutant shows reduced root developmental response to symbiotic signal but increased arbuscular mycorrhiza. Plant Signal Behav 14: e1651608.
Buendia L., Maillet F., O’Connor D., van de-Kerkhove Q., Danoun S., Gough C., Lefebvre B. and Bensmihen S. 2019. LCOs promote lateral root formation and modify auxin homeostasis in Brachypodium distachyon. New Phytol, 221: 2190-2202
Buendia L., Girardin A., Wang T., Cottret L. and Lefebvre B. 2018 LysM Receptor-Like Kinase and LysM Receptor-Like Protein Families: An Update on Phylogeny and Functional Characterization. Front. Plant Sci. 9:1531
Gough C., Cottret L., Lefebvre B. and Bono JJ. 2018. Evolutionary History of Plant LysM Receptor Proteins Related to Root Endosymbiosis. Front Plant Sci. 9:923
Lefebvre B. 2017. Arbuscular mycorrhiza: A new role for N-acetylglucosamine. Nature Plants 3, 17085
Vernié T., Camut S., Camps C., Rembliere C., de Carvalho-Niebel F., Mbengue M., Timmers T., Gasciolli V., Thompson R., Le Signor C., Lefebvre B., Cullimore J. and Hervé C. 2016. PUB1 interacts with the receptor kinase DMI2 and negatively regulates rhizobial and arbuscular mycorrhizal symbioses through its ubiquitination activity in Medicago truncatula. Plant Physiol 170: 2312-2324
Buendia L., Wang T., Girardin A. and Lefebvre B. 2016. The LysM receptor-like kinase SlLYK10 regulates the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in tomato. New Phytol 210, 184-195